Concerning the annealing and characteristics of glass
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Concerning the annealing and characteristics of glass

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Published by Govt. Print. Off. in Washington .
Written in English

Subjects:

  • Glass.,
  • Glass manufacture.

Book details:

Edition Notes

Other titlesAnnealing of glass.
Statementby A. Q. Tool, associate physicist, J. Valasek, assistant physicist, Bureau of standards. [Issued January 31, 1920]
Series[U. S.] Bureau of Standards. Scientific papers ;, no. 358, U. S. Bureau of Standards. Scientific papers ;, no. 358.
ContributionsValasek, Joseph, 1896- joint author.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsQC375 .T56
The Physical Object
Pagination1 p. l., p. 537-57l :
Number of Pages537
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL6630693M
LC Control Number20026181
OCLC/WorldCa11540133

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THE PROPER PROCEDURE FOR ANNEALING GLASS. In considering the annealing of glass from a practical point of view, we must take account of three factors: (I) The kind of glass; (2) the initial amount of strain; and (3) the lower limit of strain, that is, the permissible amount of strain in the annealed by: Annealing is a process of slowly cooling hot glass objects after they have been formed, to relieve residual internal stresses introduced during manufacture. Especially for smaller, simpler objects, annealing may be incidental to the process of manufacture, but in larger or more complex products it commonly demands a special process of annealing in a temperature-controlled kiln known as a lehr. annealing Though borosilicate is far less sensitive to thermal shock than soda-lime glasses it is still crucial for the integrity of the work to kiln anneal. With smaller work and less complex vessels flame annealing is a viable option, but with thicker sculptural work or more complex assembled work annealing is . The annealing process is critical to the durability of glass. Among the variety of issues for improperly annealed glass is the probability of the glass to crack or shatter from just a slight temperature change. When glass is not annealed correctly, the thermal stress can significantly decrease the overall strength of the glass.

Characteristics of Glass as a Building Material. Following are the properties and characteristics of the glass. Hardness and Brittleness. It is a hard material as it has great impact resistance against applied load. However, at the same time, it is a brittle material as its breaks immediately when subjected to load. Annealed glass is glass produced without internal stresses imparted by heat treatment, i.e., rapid cooling, or by toughening or heat becomes annealed if it is heated above a transition point then allowed to cool slowly, without being quenched. Glass is treated with heat in order to change its properties by the annealing process. The annealing point and the strain point lie in the glass transformation range shown in Figure 1; often, the glass transition temperature (T g) and the annealing point are used synonymously, and the strain point marks the low-temperature end of the T g may also be considered the maximum temperature for intermittent service. It is evident from Figure 5 that the T g of vitreous silica.   Annealed glass is the basic flat glass product that is the result of the float process - which comes from the primary factory, the “float” plant. Most architectural glass is made by melting silica sand, soda ash, dolomite, limestone, and salt cake to about .

Throne of Glass is a young adult high fantasy novel series by American author Sarah J. Maas, beginning with the novel of the same name, released in August The story follows the journey of Celaena Sardothien, a teenage assassin in a corrupt kingdom with a tyrannical ruler. As the tale progresses, Celaena forms unexpected bonds and uncovers a conspiracy amidst her adventures. Annealing glass makes it more durable. Glass which has not undergone the annealing process is susceptible to cracking or shattering when subjected to relatively small temperature changes or mechanical shock. It may in fact retain many of the thermal stresses caused by quenching (i.e. heat treating) and significantly decrease the overall. alternating current loss characteristics and di-electric constant (Ref 18), direct current conduc-tance of insulating materials (Ref 19), dielectric breakdown voltage and dielectric strength (Ref 20), softening point of glass (Ref 21), annealing point and strain point of glass by fiber elongation (Ref 22), annealing point and strain point of. Reduced luminous density for float glass is approx. 4cd/m2lux. Micro scratch hardness for float glass is approx. N (Mar resistance-test). The test was originally designed to determine the scratch hardness of plastics. A diamond point with 50 y cone angle and 15 mm point radius is drawn over the glass surface by applying different loads.